Title and statement of responsibility area
Chief John Julian family
General material designation
- Textual record
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- Source of title proper: Title based on contents of the fonds
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Issuing jurisdiction and denomination (philatelic)
Dates of creation area
Photocopied and microfilmed April 1983 (Creation)
- Julian, Chief John, ca. 1720-1805
Physical description area
13 pp. of textual records and 1 reel of microfilm
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Archival description area
Name of creator
John Julian or John Julien (ca. 1720-1805) was a leader of the Micmac or Mi'kmaq people of New Brunswick. In 1779 he, his brother, Francis, and other native leaders signed a treaty with Michael Franklin, superintendent of Indian Affairs for Nova Scotia, agreeing to support the British in their struggles with American Revolutionaries. As a reward, he was recognized as chief of the northern Miramichi area by Governor Parr and his tribe was granted 20,000 acres at Red Bank in 1783 and, in 1789, a second tract at Eel Ground.
These lands became the subject of a dispute when Loyalists based in Fredericton laid claim to the land and refused to honour promises made in Nova Scotia. In 1805 the dispute was settled by giving the Indians other lands. John Julian was the only chief in the area who retained enough trust in the British to make sustained efforts to confirm his people's title to the land under British legal forms. Julian's descendants remained chiefs of the Mi'kmaq until the twentieth century.
Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 5
The originals of these records were passed to successive chiefs until they came to the hands of Georgina Barlow, daughter of the last chief to inherit the documents. At the time of her father's death, the documents were in the Indian Affairs Office in Newcastle, and Barlow was forced to go to court to recover them.
Scope and content
The fonds contains a licence of occupation, investiture of hereditary chiefdom, survey records, maps, and correspondence concerning the Mi'kmaq of the northern Miramichi.
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An inventory is available.
Researchers may wish to consult MC2466/ MS2A (F17167) that includes two draft copies of an indenture between Andrew Julian, Dennis Julian, Nicola Julian, and Noel Julian and Willard Broad, concerning rent for land on the North West Miramichi, January 1832.